Ireland’s government is characterized as a parliamentary democracy. Though Ireland does have a major government influence, the people do have representation, and the country favors a democratic style of government rather than a totalitarian one. The President, though mostly a ceremonial role, is elected by a majority vote. The House of Representatives, one of the two houses of parliament, is elected by proportional representation (Irish). The Irish prime minister, called the Taoiseach, is appointed by the president, after nomination by the lower house of parliament. This is a form of indirect representation. The Taoiseach appoints eleven of the 60 Senate members, who make up the second house of parliament, and the remaining members are elected by vocational panels and national universities (Irish). Again, although the government plays a major role in many aspects of the Irish economy and healthcare system, citizens of Ireland have representation, as well as a democratic method that yields this representation.
Ireland is described, along with many other western cultures, as being an individualistic society rather than collectivist. This is due to the fact that citizens identify themselves as individuals rather than as a part of a group. However, while the Irish government does protect individual liberties, its major role in healthcare, welfare, and the economy favors collectivist theories. In contrast to a free market economy, Ireland’s government involvement in certain arenas lessens individualistic ideals. This level of involvement without a doubt decreases individual’s freedoms to make their own decisions, and favors the Irish society as a whole over the choices of the individual. Whether these policies are beneficial or not is not being debated here, but it does show that aspects of the Irish government can be viewed as largely collectivist. This mix of protection for individual rights and a strong government hand makes Ireland a difficult topic when labelling its government individualistic or collectivist.
The Republic of Ireland has plenty more political parties than the United States. The major political parties in the republic of Ireland are the Fianna Fáil, the Fine Gael, the Labour Party, the Sinn Féin, the Social Democrats, and the Green Party. In 2016, Fine Gael was the largest party represented in the Irish government with 50 representatives in parliament and 19 representatives in the senate. Fianna Fáil was the second most represented in 2016 with 44 representatives in parliament and 14 representatives in the senate.
In the Republic of Ireland, citizens over the age of 21 are able to able vote in political elections. The 2016 election in the Republic of Ireland has a voting turnout of 65.2%–a decrease from the turnout in 2011 which was 70.1%.
It is possible that new legislature could pass that could affect the operations of the restaurants. A restaurant owner looking to expand their business to the Republic of Ireland should be knowledgeable of the political parties, their representatives in parliament, and what they stand for so that they can vote in the best interests of their business.
Ireland has a mixed economic system. This system includes a variety of private freedoms combined with centralized economic planning and governmental regulation (Ireland). The constitution states that they shall favor private initiative in industry and commerce, but may provide essential services and promotes development projects in the absence of private initiative (Ranelagh). The government is a republic; parliamentary democracy. They have privately owned business such as mom and pop restaurants, garden centers, car shops, and outside companies such as McDonald’s and other forms of privately owned business. There is also ownership by the public such as police, highways, hospitals and other forms of publically owned business and property. State-sponsored bodies run rail, road transport, television stations, radio stations, and electricity from peat. State companies also run health care systems and air transportation. While the government mainly with a wide range of services such as; housing, water supply, waste management, education and welfare.
Ethical Issue: Morgan Corso
According to the Transparency International Index, Ireland is 19 and the United States is 18 out of 176 countries. Corruption between the United States and Ireland is similar. Corruption is a low risk amongst many aspects such as: tax administration, public services, police, and the judicial system. Since Ireland follows The Prevention of Corruption Act, they do not tolerate any individual or company giving or receiving bribes. Although bribery does occur on occasion, it almost never happens when dealing with business in Ireland. Human rights are very similar in Ireland that they are to the United States. Ireland is part of the United Nations Human Rights Council, therefore, they focus on the human rights of LGBTI, rights of the child, protection of human rights defender, freedom of religion, and the right to marriage equality. When looking at the ethical issues in Ireland compared to the United States, they are relatively close. Corruption rankings are close, bribery is not tolerated, and human rights are about the same. Overall when a company is looking to expand to Ireland, it’s comforting to know that corruption is low and when running a business. There is a lower chance of fraud, bribery, or crimes occurring and no business wants to put that at risk when trying to expand.
Ireland’s Legal System: Ralph Martinez
A fun fact about Ireland’s constitution is that it is written in two languages. Here it states that the Irish language is the national language and English is the second language. It also states wherever a divergence occurs in both texts of the constitution, the text in the Irish language will prevail. The Irish court systems exists in what is called a common law jurisdiction. Irish law and the law in the United States are similar when it comes to separation of powers. There is a Legislative branch, Executive branch, and Judicial branch.
When it comes to criminal law in Ireland, serious offenses are prosecuted by the Director of Public Prosecutions in the name of the people of Ireland and are normally tried before a jury. Terrorist and organized crime trials are held in the juryless Special Criminal Court. Ireland doesn’t really have a theocracy law. The last biggest case where it was related was where the people voted against the wishes of the catholic church by making gay marriage legal and by popular vote.
Coming to contracts, courts will only validate a contract if there is any real established intent. The party must be aware that they are entering a contract, and there must be a wording of agreement. When it comes to general presumption, no agreement will be enforced upon unless that’s what the parties intended. If we are unsure of what the parties intended there will be an objective test applied. The question would be asked, “would the reasonable third party believe there was an intent for the agreement to be enforceable?”
“Contract Law.” Irish Law: A student’s Guide. N.p., 18 Sept. 2013. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.
Gan. “Ireland Corruption Report.” GANBACP. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.
“Ireland.” GlobalEDGE: Your source for Global Business Knowledge. Michigan State University., 1994. Web. 27 Mar. 2017. <https://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/ireland>.
“Irish Political System.” Irish EU Presidency, Irish Politics and Government : Irish Political System. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.
Mckinty, Adrian. “The End Of Theocracy In Ireland.” The psychopathology of everyday life – Adrian McKinty’s blog. N.p., 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.
“Overseas Business Risk – Ireland.” Overseas Business Risk – Ireland – GOV.UK. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.
Ranelagh, John O’Beirne, and Frederick Henry Boland. “Ireland.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2017. <https://www.britannica.com/place/Ireland/Economy>.
“The Political System and Voting.” LIVING IN IRELAND: An Integration Website for Migrants Living in Ireland. Crosscare Migrant Project, 27 Mar. 2017. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.
Transparency International. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2017.
“Rehabilitating Ireland Inc.” Business & Finance. N.p., 13 Aug. 2014. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.